The major issues facing governments in the early colonies are mirrored by today's debates. They were mainly budget and defense. The parties favoring a strong defense expected someone other than themselves to pay for it. There was never enough money to fund what they wanted, and they resisted raising taxes.
In colonial Virginia there was a constant tension between the executive (the governor, appointed by a Board in London) and the elected legislature. Good government required that the governor get along with the assembly. If he didn't the House of Burgesses and the Governor's Council (all Virginians) found a way to get rid of him.
See my two historical novels, The Wealth of Jamestown and The Wealth of Virginia for examples of how politics was conducted in early days.
Wealth of Jamestown: http://amzn/B00JNLYPHQ
Wealth of Virginia: http://goo.gl/H9MlbY
Also see my website: www.WealthOfJamestown.com